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Our LML IHC Markers

Epitope target @ LML vs.
ref. lab
FIXATIVE Vendor. CAT.# Ab/type(CLONE)/
TITER type
TARGET Positive
A-1-ACT (alpha-1 antichymotrypsin) LML NBF Dako A0022 Poly 1:6400 PROT Y/N 10%NBF Cytoplasmic Histiocytes breast epi.; tonsil
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) LML NBF             Cytoplasmic   pituitary
AE1/AE3 (pan-keratin) LML                    
AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) LML NBF Dako A0008 Poly   RV Y/Y 10%NBF Cytoplasmic Hepatocytes Fetal Liver; HCC
ALK-1 protein (activin receptor-like kinase 1) LML NBF             Cyto &/or nuclear anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells; PSFMT Hodgkin or ALCL tissue
AMACR (alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase;P504S; racemase) ref                    
pan-B-cell (CD20) LML NBF Zymed 18-0088 L-26 1:100 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF Cytoplasmic B-cells Tonsil
bcl-1 (see cyclin D1) LML NBF             nuclear mantel cell lymphoma marker tonsilar epithelial basal & parabasal epithelial nuclei; melanoma cell nuclei
Bcl-2 oncoprotein LML M2 Zymed 18-0193 Bcl-2/100/D5 1:400 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF BEST: Bouin's or B5 or M2 can work

Memb & cyto


an anti-apoptotic factor = normal & reactive germinal centers, negative; neoplastic follicles/nodules, positive[also]; its expression in breast cancer cells is favorable & tends to imply "luminal A" rather than B. Tonsil; normal melanocytes; some pos. in normal breast
BCL-6 protein LML NBF            



Ber-Ep4 (MOC-31; Ep-CAM; epithelial specific antigen) LML NBF                  
beta-catenin LML NBF Dako M3539 beta-catenin-1 monomouse       cytoplasmic toward membrane & may be nuclear adhesion junct. protein subunit of cadherin & common molecular CRC is over-expressed into nuclear pos. (along w/ p53) colonic & breast lobule epithelials & squamous surface of tonsil membrane pos. & tonsil plasma cells Golgi pos.
BRST-2 (gross cystic disease fluid protein; GCDFP-15) LML NBF Biocare PM113AA D6   RV Y/N 10%NBF Cytoplasmic apocrine differentiation, breast cancer (about 50% sensitivity), axillary sweat glands and submandibular salivary glands Normal axilla apocrine, known pos. breast ca., & bronchial glands.
Ber-H2 (see CD30) LML NBF               embryonal ca.; Reed-Sternberg cells  
CA-125 LML NBF                  
calcitonin LML NBF  NC NCL-CALp Poly 1:200 RV Y/Y 10%NBF Cytoplasmic C-cells of Thyroid Thyroid
CALLA (CD10) LML                    
calretinin LML NBF (alcohol reduces) Zymed 08-42111 Poly Pre RV Y/Y 10%NBF Cytoplasmic & nuclear Mesothelium; basal-type breast cancer Normal cerebral cortex, adipocytes, pleura & mesothelium (appendix & fal. tube), and mesothelioma; testis (Leydig cells positive); adrenal adenoma
CD3 (pan-T-Cell) LML   Zymed 804478 Poly PRE Borg Y/N 10%NBF Membrane T-cell membrane (essentially a pan-T cell) Tonsil
CD4 LML   Ventana 250-2712 1F6 PRE Borg 15min Y/N 10%NBF Membrane T-helper cells Tonsil
CD5 LML B5/mercuric decreases it3; OK with bone marrow decal NC NCL-CD5-4C7 4C7 1:30 Borg Y/N 10%NBF, Bouin's, B5 Membrane T-cells in mantle cell lymphoma & CLL/SLL; 95% of thymocytes & about 75% of periph. bllod lymphocytes Tonsil
CD7 LML                    
CD8 LML   Ventana 250-2714 1A5 PRE Borg Y/N 10%NBF Membrane T-suppressor cells Tonsil
CD10 (CALLA) LML NBF NC NCL-CD10-270 270 1:50 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF Membrane; brush border CLL, FCC, CALLA, lymphs, Burkitt's, RCC Tonsil
CD15 (Leu-M1) LML NBF Zymed Leu-M1 LEU-M1 PRE BORG Y/N 10%NBF, Bouin's, B5 Membrane (memb. plus Golgi in R-S cells) Granulocytes [internal pos. auto-control]; Reed-Sternberg Tonsil/LN
CD20 (see pan-B) LML NBF             cytoplasmic B-lymphs Tonsil
CD23 LML   NC NCL-CD23-1B12 1B12 1:80 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF Membrane B-lymphs, CLL/SLL Tonsil
CD30 (Ki-1; Ber-H2) LML NBF Zymed 18-0155 Ber-H2 1:20 RV Y/N 10%NBF Membrane (memb. plus Golgi in R-S cells) Activated T&B cells, NK cells, R-S Cells, ALCL cells, adenoca., embryonal ca.; [internal pos. auto-control]___ Tonsil, LN
CD31 LML NBF DAKO N1596 JC70A PRE          
CD34 LML   CM CMA-335 GBEND/10 PRE Borg Y/Y 10%NBF Membrane Hematopoietic progenitor cells, myeloid and lymphoid lineage, and vascular endothelium and pericytes Tonsil
CD45 (see LCA) LML               Membrane    
CD45R0 (T cell)                   pan-T cell  
CD56 (NCAM) LML   BC CM164B BC56CO4 1:80 RV Y/N 10%NBF Membrane very sensitive neuroendocrine marker; NCAM, Skin, SCC, Neurons, Astrocytes, NK cells, Activated T-cells Pancreas, neuroblastoma
CD57 LML                    
CD68 (KPI) LML NBF BC CM033B KP1 1:1280 RV Y/Y 10%NBF Cytoplasmic Myeloid Leuk,macrophage, monocytes, Kupffer cells Tonsil
CD99 LML   CD99 M3601 12E7       membranous & cytoplasmic in ES & PNET & cytoplasmic in others Ewing Sarcomas, neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), peripheral neuroepitheliomas, lymphoblastic lymphoma & leukemia & others tonsil basal & parabasal squamous has a distinct membrane pos. when process is optimal; pancreatic islet cells, Sertoli cells, cortical thymocytes, and granulosa cells
CD117 (c-kit) LML               CD117 is c-kit proto-oncogene transmembrane glycoprotein product. mast cells, melanocytes. GIST normal breast epithelium
CD138 LML               Cytoplasmic plasma cells tonsil
CDX-2 LML NBF             nuclear TF colon cancer nl colon epi.
CEA (COL-1) LML   Zymed 18-0057 COL-1 monoclonal 1:300 RV Y/Y 10%NBF memb/ cytopl CEA in G.I. intestinal tumors & does not react with normal colon Colon Ca
mCEA (monoclonal) LML    Ventana 760-2507 TF-3H8-1 monoclonal PRE RV Y/N 10%NBF Membrane and Cytoplasmic Epithelial Cells CAM
pCEA (polyclonal) LML   Dako A 0115 polyclonal       HCC canalicular stains HCC with canalicular pattern which can be weak in less diff. HCCs; stains met. adenoca.; 100% med. TC colon ca
Chromogranin A LML   Ventana 760-2519 LK2H10 PRE Borg Y/N 10%NBF memb/cytopl Secretory granules of NE cells...epithelial Pancreas
c-kit  (see CD117) LML                    
CK5/6 LML               cytoplasmic, fibrillar mesothelial & mesothelioma marker; "basal like" breast cancer marker; squamous & transitional cell marker tonsil
CK7 LML    Dako M7018 OV-TL 1:200 None Y/Y 10%NBF cytoplasmic, fibrillar non-SCC ca. above diaphragm; transitional epithelia about 100% Breast
CK8 (LMWK) LML    Dako M0631 35BH11 1:200 Prot-1 Y/Y 10%NBF BEST: Carnoy's or Methacarn cytoplasmic, fibrillar NS epithelium Breast
CK17                   a basal breast ca. marker as with ck5/6  
CK19 LML NBF             cytoplasmic, fibrillar classical PTC  
CK20 LML   Dako M7019 Ks20.8 1:200 None Y/N 10%NBF cytoplasmic, fibrillar non-SCC ca. below diaphragm; transitional 40-70% CAM, colon
CMV LML                    
collagen type IV LML               extracellular sarcomas pos. appendix
cyclin D1(bcl-1) LML NBF             nuclear MCL; melanoma more likely when lots nuclei pos. at many levels in atypia vs. MIS breast ca.; melanoma cells
DBA-44 (hairy cell leukemia) LML                    
Desmin LML   Dako M0760 D33 1:50 RV Y/N 10%NBF Membrane Intermediate filaments in striated and smooth muscle cells CAM; appendix
EBV LML                    
E-cadherin LML   Zymed 18-0223 4A2C7 1:400 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF Membrane Tissue morphogenesis and structure, osteoblasts, PN Schwann cell, Langerhan's cells ductal ca. breast
EGFR (HER-1) LML NBF           10% NBF; & works /w Hartmann's membrane basal-like breast ca. SC junct. cervix; villous trophoblasts of placenta; epidermis
EMA LML   Ventana 250-2508 Mc5 PRE RV Y/N 10%NBF Membrane/ cytoplasmic Normal epithelial cells; RCC; rare lymphoma; plasma cells breast
Ep-CAM (Ber-Ep4; MOC-31; epithelial specific antigen) LML                    
epithelial specific antigen (Ep-CAM; Ber-Ep4; MOC-31) LML                    
ER LML NBF (alcohol reduces) Ventana 760-2596 6F11 Pre Borg Y/N 10%NBF Nuclear (transcription factor) Lobular, tubular, & luminal breast ca's rich with PR & implies responsiveness to hormonal blockade TX, especially as "H score" higher; about 10% lung cancers positive breast; uterus
ERG   NBF Biocare Medical   9FY CPDR       nuclear & minimal cytoplasmic positive in acinar PIN & 50-70% pros. ca. prostate ca.
Factor VIII (F-8) LML   Dako N1505 Vwf 1:500 RV Y/N 10%NBF Cytoplasmic Vascular endothelial cells Tonsil
Fascin LML NBF Cell Marque   55k-2         dendritic cells;  Hodgkin lymphoma cells (R-S); [internal pos. auto-control] is endothelium & dendritic cells in benign lymphoid follicles Hodgkin with known R-S cells
FSH LML                    
GCDFP-15 (see Brst-2) LML                  about 50% of breast cancers (but not "basal like") are positive, especially if apocrine change (only 5% of medullary); sweat gland & salivary gland pos. Breast
GFAP LML   Ventana 250-2516 Poly PRE None Y/N 10%NBF Cytoplasmic astrocytes, ependymal cells, activated Ito cells, activated myofibroblasts Brain
GPC3 ref                 HCC cells pos. & FNH & regenerative cirrhotic nodules not  
gp100 (see HMB-45) LML       HMB-45            
HBME-1 (mesothelial cell) LML                    
HCG LML   NC NCL-HCGp Poly 1:500 RV Y/Y 10%NBF Cytoplasmic Placenta trophoblasts; Note: cross-reacts weakly with LH, FSH and TSH Placenta
Hep Par-1 (hepatocyte paraffin 1) LML DAKO CM M7158 OCH1E5.2.10
(hepatocyte specific antigen: HSA)

granular cytoplasmic

(their mitochondria)

>90% sens. for B9 or malig. hepatocytes...liver cells; also pos. in some gastric, ovarian, and neuroendocrine ca. liver
Helicobacter pylori (H. p.) LML   CM CMC435 Poly 1:50 RV Y/Y 10% NBF , M2 Surface & cytoplasm HBP in epithelial cells GIBX
HER-1 (see EGFR) LML                    
HER-2 LML   Dako A0485 c-erb-2 1:1000 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF, Bouin's Membrane product of the HER-2/neu oncogene Epithelial cells HER-2 pos. breast
HGH LML                    
HMB-45 LML NBF Dako M0634 HMB-45 1:200 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF Membrane Melanomas; renal AML Melanoma
HPL LML                    
HPV LML                    
HSVI/II LML                    
inhibin LML                    
K903 (HMWK; squamous; ck 1,5,10,14) LML NBF; M2 Dako M0630 34BE12
(reactivity fades with prolonged NBF fixation time1)
1:40 Prot-1 Y/Y 10%NBF BEST: Carnoy's or Methacarn Membrane prostate basal; squamous epithelia & SCC  Prostate (ME cells pos.)
kappa light chains LML NBF
(not mercuric)
Dako M0827 R10-21-F3 1:80 RV Y/Y 10%NBF Coarse meshwork pattern Plasma cells and B-cells Tonsil
keratin, HMWK
LML NBF             cytoplasmic, fibrillar basal cells & positivity almost always indicates benign the normal glands in the cores
keratin, LMW (see ck8) LML               cytoplasmic, fibrillar    
Ki-1 (see CD30) LML                     
Ki-67 (mib-1) LML markedly reduced w/ the common glyoxyl-based formalin substitutes3 Dako M7240 mono(MIB-1) 1:40 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF, Bouin's, B5, Zenker's; Hartmann's Nuclear Active Phase cells (G1,S, G2 and M) Tonsil
lambda light chains LML NBF
(not mercuric)
Dako M0614 N10/2 1:80 RV Y/Y 10%NBF Membrane Plasma cells Tonsil
LCA (CD45; leukocyte common antigen) LML   Ventana 250-2136 RP2/18 PRE RV Y/N 10%NBF Membrane leukocytic cell lineage & if pos. is nearly 100% specific Tonsil
Leu-M1 (see CD15) LML NBF                  
LH LML                    
lysozyme (muramidase) LML   NC NCl-Muram Poly 1:200 RV Y/N 10%NBF Cytoplasmic Myeloid/monocytic cells Tonsil, Colon, Spleen
mammaglobin ref                 about 50% sensitive for breast cancer  
Mart-1 (Melan-A) LML   Dako M7196 A103 1:40 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF Membrane Melan A mRNA+ cells, melanocytes, adrenal cortical ad/ca Melanoma
MBP (myelin basic protein) ref   Ventana 250-2791 Poly PRE/Lyph RV Y/N 10%NBF   CNS and PNS soft tissue tumors Brain, kidney, spinal cord
Melan A (see Mart-1) LML                    
MOC-31 (Ber-Ep4; Ep-CAM; epithelial specific antigen) LML                    
MSA (muscle specific actin)     Ventana 250-2790 HHF-35 PRE/Lyph RV Y/N 10%NBF Cytoplasmic Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells; rhabdomyoblasts CAM
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) LML   NC NCL-MYELOp Poly 1:60 RV Y/Y 10%NBF Cytoplasmic Myeloid Cells Tonsil
muscle actin (MA)                      
myoglobin LML                     
NCAM(CD56) LML                    
neurofilament (NFP) LML   CM CMA518-520 2F11         neural tumors, pheos, carcinoids, neuroendocrine ca. of skin & lung  
NSE LML   Ventana 250-2517 BBS/NC/V1-H14 PRE RV Y/N 10%NBF Cytoplasmic Neurons, NE cells, T-cells Pancreas
pan-keratin (AE1/AE3) LML   Dako M3515 AE1/AE3 (cocktail) 1:40 Prot-1 Y/Y 10%NBF Membrane Stratified squamous epithelia (basic and acidic keratins) Breast
pan-melanoma (cocktail of Mart-1 & HMB-45) LML   VP-Echelon VP165G5 HMB45, MART-1(DT101 & BC199), & tyrosinase (T311) cocktail           melanoma
PAX2 ref               nuclear RCC  
PAX-5 LML NBF Ventana 760-4270 24            
p16 LML NBF             cyto/nuclear   surrogate for presence of HPV; pos. favors endocervical over endometrial ca.
p53 LML NBF (alcohol can reduce nuclear products so don't use Hartmann's block) Ventana 790-2912 DO-7     10% NBF (Hartman's LMC-03-4613; but negative may be false neg.) nuclear encoded by TP53 gene; normal p53 "guards" the genome from damage & has brief half-life & neg. IHC; gene mutation produces p53 with prolonged half life, so IHC positivity implies mutation by presence of p53 nuclear product; & significantly increased (maybe defined when mutation penetrance IHC "H score" 100 or higher) mutated p53 helps define common CRC & non-luminal-A breast ca.; serous GYN cancer pos. and high-grade endometrioid common colon ca.
P504S (alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase; racemase) ref                 prostate cancer cells pos.  
p63 LML   NBF (alcohol reduces) Dako N1604 4A4 monomouse       nuclear squamous & urothelial marker; myoepithelial nucleus marker; diffuse large B cell may mark skin, esoph., bladder
PLAP LML NBF Dako M7191 8A9 monomouse 1:50 RV Y/Y 10%NBF Membrane Syncytiotrophoblasts Placenta, seminoma
placental lactogen LML NBF Dako A0137 PL polyrabbit            
PR LML NBF (alcohol reduces) Ventana 760-2816 16 Pre Borg Y/N 10%NBF Nuclear (transcription factor) Lobular, tubular, & luminal breast ca's rich with PR & implies responsiveness to homornal blockade TX Breast Ca
prolactin LML NBF Dako   polyrabbit            
PSA LML NBF Dako   polyrabbit PRE RV Y/N 10%NBF Membrane/ cytoplasmic Normal prostatic epithelial cells Prostate
racemase (AMACR; alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase;P504S) ref NBF                  
S-100 LML NBF Dako N1573 polyrabbit PRE Borg Y/N 10%NBF Homogeneous cytoplasmic & nuclear NE Cells Melanoma or peripheral nerves; adipocytes
SMA (smooth muscle actin) LML NBF Dako N1584 1A4 monomouse            
SMM-hc LML NBF Dako M3558 SMMS-1monomouse 1:50 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF Cytoplasmic smooth muscle (& myoepithelial & pericytes & myofibroblasts) Breast
surfactant ApoA ref               Cytopasmic   pneumocytes
synaptophysin LML NBF Ventana (CM) 250-2668 Poly PRE RV Y/Y 10%NBF Cytoplasmic NE Cells...neural Pancreas
TAG-72 LML NBF Vetana                
T-cell (CD45RO) LML   Zymed 18-0112 A6 1:100 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF Membrane T-cells Tonsil
TdT LML NBF (alcohol reduces)             nuclear    
thrombomodulin LML                   Placenta
thyroglobulin LML   Ventana 250-2671 2H11/6E1 PRE RV Y/N 10%NBF homogeneous cytoplasmic Langerhan cells, thyroid cells; anaplastic TC only rare pos cells Thyroid
TTF-1 LML NBF (alcohol watch out for false neg. in effusions) Zymed 18-0221 8G7G3/1 1:200 Borg Y/Y 10%NBF (TFs adversely affected by alcohol) Nuclear (transcription factor) epithelial cells of the lung (pneumocytes) and thyroid follicle cells, including neuroendocrine...but some NE of other sites are positive (e. g., prostate2) Lung/thryroid
TRAP LML                    
ubiquitin LML                 Mallory bodies  
villin                 apical membrane brush border pattern is highly specific for GI tract adenoca.  
vimentin LML   Ventana 250-2754 V9 PRE/Lyph None Y/N 10%NBF Cytoplasmic melanoma, sarcoma, spindled & poorly/undiff. ca., RCC, thyr. ca. intestines, appendix, CAM
WT-1 LML               nuclear DSRCT, rhabdosarc., Ewings, PNET, & serous GYN ca. pos.  


  1. Varma M & Jasani B, "Diagnostic Utility of Immunohistochemistry In Morphologically Difficult Prostate Cancer: A Review of Current Literature", Histopathology 47(1):1-16, 2005.
  2. True LD, CME course, 1 May 2005, 12th Annual SP Seminar, Pittsburgh .
  3. Yaziji H & Barry T, "Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry: What can Go Wrong", Adv. Anat. Pathol., 13(5):238-246, Sept. 2006.

(posted April 2002; latest addition 25 October 2011)